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Advent of Code 2018 - Day 16, in Kotlin

Kotlin solutions to parts 1 and 2 of Advent of Code 2018, Day 16: 'Chronal Classification'

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Day 16 reminded me of several problems from Advent of Code 2017 where we had to make a virtual machine over the course of a few days. This was a nice problem, I had fun with this one.

If you’d rather just view code, the GitHub Repository is here.

Problem Input

The input given to us is one file with two sections. To make things easier, I broke it up into two separate files and parse them wholly and individually. We’ll do them inline below.

Day 16, Part 1

The puzzle text can be found here.

Yay, another computer! These are fun.

Parsing Input

I decided to go low-complexity on this by chunking every 4 lines of our part 1 input int one map operation using the chunked function. I also defined a regular expression that removes everything except digits and spaces from our input so everything will be uniform. This allows us to trim and split our input, mapping each String to an Int, and then to an IntArray. We could have done this with a more complicated regular expression and matchers, but I feel this is easy to follow.

class Day16(
    part1RawInput: List<String>,
    part2RawInput: List<String>
) {

    private val part1Input: List<Input> = parsePart1Input(part1RawInput)

    private companion object {
        val digitsRegex = """[^0-9 ]""".toRegex()

        fun parsePart1Input(rawInput: List<String>): List<Input> =
            rawInput.chunked(4) { chunk ->
                Input(
                    chunk[0].toIntArray(),
                    chunk[1].toIntArray(),
                    chunk[2].toIntArray()
                )
            }

        private fun String.toIntArray(): IntArray =
            this.replace(digitsRegex, "").trim().split(" ").map { it.toInt() }.toIntArray()

    }

Types

I don’t usually use typealias but I feel like the complexity of the types in this solution warrant it, or at least are helped by it. So let’s define those:

typealias Registers = IntArray
typealias Instruction = IntArray
typealias Operation = (Registers, Instruction) -> Registers

As you can see, most everything is an IntArray. The only exception is the Operation, which is a function that takes a set of Registers, an Instruction, and emits a new set of Registers. This is a pure function because it has no side effects, which I always prefer if I can.

Operations

There are a few ways we could have gone with defining the actual operations, but I decided to created a private object to house them all. Each is defined a a function and each function is references in a List. We could probably also have defined an enum for this, but my gut told me that would be more verbose. Read the instructions carefully for each operation, there are some twists and turns in there.

private object Operations {
    val operations: List<Operation> = listOf(
        ::addr,
        ::addi,
        ::mulr,
        ::muli,
        ::banr,
        ::bani,
        ::borr,
        ::bori,
        ::setr,
        ::seti,
        ::gtir,
        ::gtri,
        ::gtrr,
        ::eqir,
        ::eqri,
        ::eqrr
    )

    fun addr(registers: Registers, instruction: Instruction): Registers =
        registers.copyOf().apply { this[instruction[3]] = registers[instruction[1]] + registers[instruction[2]] }

    fun addi(registers: Registers, instruction: Instruction): Registers =
        registers.copyOf().apply { this[instruction[3]] = registers[instruction[1]] + instruction[2] }

    fun mulr(registers: Registers, instruction: Instruction): Registers =
        registers.copyOf().apply { this[instruction[3]] = registers[instruction[1]] * registers[instruction[2]] }

    fun muli(registers: Registers, instruction: Instruction): Registers =
        registers.copyOf().apply { this[instruction[3]] = registers[instruction[1]] * instruction[2] }

    fun banr(registers: Registers, instruction: Instruction): Registers =
        registers.copyOf().apply { this[instruction[3]] = registers[instruction[1]] and registers[instruction[2]] }

    fun bani(registers: Registers, instruction: Instruction): Registers =
        registers.copyOf().apply { this[instruction[3]] = registers[instruction[1]] and instruction[2] }

    fun borr(registers: Registers, instruction: Instruction): Registers =
        registers.copyOf().apply { this[instruction[3]] = registers[instruction[1]] or registers[instruction[2]] }

    fun bori(registers: Registers, instruction: Instruction): Registers =
        registers.copyOf().apply { this[instruction[3]] = registers[instruction[1]] or instruction[2] }

    fun setr(registers: Registers, instruction: Instruction): Registers =
        registers.copyOf().apply { this[instruction[3]] = registers[instruction[1]] }

    fun seti(registers: Registers, instruction: Instruction): Registers =
        registers.copyOf().apply { this[instruction[3]] = instruction[1] }

    fun gtir(registers: Registers, instruction: Instruction): Registers =
        registers.copyOf().apply { this[instruction[3]] = if (instruction[1] > registers[instruction[2]]) 1 else 0 }

    fun gtri(registers: Registers, instruction: Instruction): Registers =
        registers.copyOf().apply { this[instruction[3]] = if (registers[instruction[1]] > instruction[2]) 1 else 0 }

    fun gtrr(registers: Registers, instruction: Instruction): Registers =
        registers.copyOf().apply { this[instruction[3]] = if (registers[instruction[1]] > registers[instruction[2]]) 1 else 0 }

    fun eqir(registers: Registers, instruction: Instruction): Registers =
        registers.copyOf().apply { this[instruction[3]] = if (instruction[1] == registers[instruction[2]]) 1 else 0 }

    fun eqri(registers: Registers, instruction: Instruction): Registers =
        registers.copyOf().apply { this[instruction[3]] = if (registers[instruction[1]] == instruction[2]) 1 else 0 }

    fun eqrr(registers: Registers, instruction: Instruction): Registers =
        registers.copyOf().apply { this[instruction[3]] = if (registers[instruction[1]] == registers[instruction[2]]) 1 else 0 }
}

Executing Operations

Now that we have our input, types, and operations, we can move directly to solving the problem at hand. Let’s write a function that for a given input tells us how many of the Operations match the before and after of the registers. We need to be careful not to use == to compare our IntArray, we need to use .contentEquals here instead or we’ll get the wrong answer.

private fun countMatchingOperations(input: Input): Int =
    Operations.operations.count { it(input.registersBefore, input.instruction).contentEquals(input.expectedRegisters) }

And then, count how many of the input groupings have at least three matching operations:

fun solvePart1(): Int =
    part1Input.count { countMatchingOperations(it) >= 3 }

Star earned!

Day 16, Part 2

The puzzle text can be found here.

Parsing

Like part 1, we’ll define our parse function in our companion:

private val part2Input: List<Instruction> = parsePart2Input(part2RawInput)

private companion object {

    fun parsePart2Input(rawInput: List<String>): List<Instruction> =
        rawInput.map { it.toIntArray() }
}

Finding What Each Code Means

Let’s look at the code, and then go over it. Essentially we will need to run all of part 1 again, and find the one pair of operation/id which is unambiguous. Using that, we can gradually figure out which ids and operations match up.

fun solvePart2(): Int {
    // Create all possible matches.
    val functionToOpCodes: MutableMap<Operation, MutableSet<Int>> = part1Input.flatMap { input ->
        Operations.operations.mapNotNull { operation ->
            if (operation(input.registersBefore, input.instruction).contentEquals(input.expectedRegisters)) {
                input.id to operation
            } else {
                null
            }
        }
    }
        .groupBy({ it.second }, { it.first })
        .mapValues { (_, list) -> list.toMutableSet() }
        .toMutableMap()

    val operations = mutableMapOf<Int, Operation>()
    while (functionToOpCodes.isNotEmpty()) {
        // Find all that have only one outcome, map them into the operations map and remove them from contention,
        functionToOpCodes
            .filter { (_, codes) -> codes.size == 1 }
            .map { Pair(it.key, it.value.first()) }
            .forEach { (op, code) ->
                operations[code] = op
                functionToOpCodes.remove(op)
                functionToOpCodes.forEach { (_, thoseFuncs) -> thoseFuncs.remove(code) }
            }
        functionToOpCodes.entries.removeIf { (_, value) -> value.isEmpty() }
    }


    // Run the code and return register 0
    return part2Input.fold(intArrayOf(0, 0, 0, 0)) { registers, instruction ->
        operations[instruction[0]]!!.invoke(registers, instruction)
    }.first()
}

I know that’s a lot more code than I usually put in a single function, so let’s go through it. In the first part, we run all of our actual/expected pairs from part 1 again, but this time when one matches we create a Pair<Int, Operation>, where the Int is the instruction code. Then we group all of those so we end up with a MutableMap<Int, Set<Operation>>. For each code, what are the operations that match it?

Next, we iteratively go through that map and find keys (ids) that have one value (operations). Bingo! We know one part of the answer. If we remove that operation from all of the other sets that contain it, we will reduce another set to just having one entry. Keep repeating this process and we have a full set of code to operations!

Finally, we run our part 2 input again using a fold. The fold is handy because we can use our pure operation functions and end up with a set of registers. The only difference here is that instead of running all operations, we peek at the first digit in each instruction to find the operation id, look up that operation, and execute that operation with our registers and input.

Ending with a set of registers, we get the first element and return it as our answer!

Star earned!

Further Reading

  1. Index of All Solutions - All solutions for 2018, in Kotlin.
  2. My Github repo - Solutions and tests for each day.
  3. Solution - Full code for day 16
  4. Advent of Code - Come join in and do these challenges yourself!